The doctoral student concludes her/his research by writing a substantial thesis. The doctoral thesis must adhere to standards in scientific methodology and form an independent and authentic contribution to the creation of knowledge in the field in question. The doctoral thesis usually forms an autonomous whole. However, it may also, depending on faculty regulations, be an integral collection of articles on one main field of research. In those cases the doctoral student must write a feature article covering all the main topics of the individual articles, summing up main conclusions; or connecting the articles’ content in another academically acceptable fashion.
Once the doctoral candidate and the tutor estimate the thesis ready for submission they propose to the doctoral committee that the work be presented for doctoral defence. The doctoral committee presents a well-founded evaluation to the faculty on whether the candidate should be allowed to submit the thesis for doctoral defence. If the faculty considers the thesis ready it appoints two opponents for an oral defence of the thesis. The appointment of opponents is subject to review by the Graduate School. The doctoral committee must receive, with the submitted thesis, a confirmed statement of the student’s studies for evaluation. Faculty regulations stipulate assessment and the organisation of examinations.